A range of resources produced for the project will be available as it develops. Also look at the Links page.

Video recorded interviews with practitioners and academics

Mark Harrison: Language Operation Manager, Viacom International

Mark Harrison, Head of Language Operations at Viacom International Media Networks, answers questions about intralingual subtitling as a form of accessibility. Most music channels, for reasons of copyrights, do not translate songs as such, but transcribe them. Mark comments on the context of songs on television.

Adriana Tortoriello: Translator and lecturer

Adriana Tortoriello, of University College London and a freelance translator, shares her experience in subtitling operas and operettas for DVD and highlights the main challenges encountered in this work: humour, intertextuality and the general issues of dealing with musical texts as a non specialist of music.

Klaus Kaindl: University of Vienna

Klaus Kaindl, of the University of Vienna, discusses the translation of popular music, which has been given less visibility than opera and classical music. He emphasises how such music is often translated from the point of view of style and genre, giving examples from the German Schlager or French 20th century songs.

Jane Manning: Soprano

Jane Manning - Opera singer, researcher, and supporter of new music, Jane Manning has a long and successful career performing in a range of languages. Here she answers questions about singing in the original language and in translation. She illustrates her responses with examples to music she has performed during the last 50 years. Jane comments on the ways in which singers use text in performance.

The bibliography below will expand as readers send references to be added:

Film music and adaptation in other media

Powrie, Phil and Robyn Stitwell (eds) (2006) Changing Tunes: The Use of Pre-existing Music in Film. Aldershot and Burlington: Ashgate Publishing.
Citron, Marcia J. (2000)
Opera on Screen. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Clark, Randy (1991) ‘Bending the genre: the stage and screen versions of Cabaret’. Literature/Film Quarterly 19(1):51-59.
Collier, M. B. (1994) La Carmen essentielle et sa réalisation au Spectacle. New York: Peter Lang.
Halliwell, Michael (2005) Opera and the Novel. The case of Henry James. Amsterdam: Rodopi
Jeongwon, Joe and Theresa Rose (eds) (2002)
Between Opera and Cinema. Oxon: Routledge.
Kauffmann, Stanley (2001) "The abduction from the theatre: Mozart opera on film", in James M. Morris (ed.)
On Mozart. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 227-239.
Kracauer, Siegfried (1955) "Opera on the screen", in
Film Culture 1: 19-21.
Perriam, Christopher and Ann Davis (eds) (2005)
Carmen: From Silent Film to MTV. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Rosmarin, Léonard (1999)
When Literature Becomes Opera. Amsterdam and Atlanta: Rodopi.
Schmidgall, Gary (1977)
Literature as Opera. New York: Oxford University Press.
Tambling, Jeremy (1987)
Opera, Ideology and Film. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Tambling, Jeremy (ed.) (1994)
A Night in at the Opera: Media Representations of Opera. London: J. Libbey.
Tortoriello Adriana (2006) "Funny and Educational across Cultures: Subtitling Winnie The Pooh into Italian”, in
JoSTrans, The Journal of Specialised Translation, n° 6, July 2006, 53-67.

Music and accessibility: audio description, and surtitling (See also the opera section)
Section compiled in collaboration with Louisa Desilla
Eugeni, Carlo (2006) "Il sopratitolaggio: definizione e differenze con il sottotitolaggio", in InTRAlinea Vol. 8. Online. (Last accessed 10 July 2013).
Mateo, Marta (2007) "Reception, text and context in the study of opera surtitles", in Yves Gambier et al. (eds)
Doubts and Directions in Translation Studies: Selected contributions from the EST Congress. Lisbon 2004. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 169-182.
Oncins, Estella (2013) "The tyranny of the tool: surtitling live performances", in
Perspectives: Studies in Translatology. Online. (Last accessed 10 July 2013).
Orero, Pilar and Anna Matamala (2007) "Accessible opera: overcoming linguistic and sensorial barriers", in
Perspectives: Studies in Translatology 15(4): 262-277.
Neves, Joselia (2010) "Music to my eyes… Conveying music in subtitling for the deaf and the hard of hearing", in Łukasz Bogucki and Krzystof Kredens (eds)
Perspectives in Audiovisual Translation. Łódz Studies in Language. Vol. 20. Frankfort am Main: Peter Lang, 123-145.
Tomassini, Anthony (2010) "How opera challenges translators", in
The New York Times 24/12/2013. ted=all&_r=2& (Last accessed 10 July 2013).
Weaver, Sarah (2010) "Opening doors to opera: the strategies, challenges and general role of the translator", in
InTRAlinea Vol. 10. (Last accessed 10 July 2013).

Relevant websites and online resources (last accessed on 10 July 2013)
Opera Libretti on the Web, University of Delaware (some of the links on this website are broken)
The Opera Translator’s Perspective: Amanda Holden’s website contains articles, talks and other resources
Surtitling at the Royal Opera House; interview with Judi Palmer
Short blog contribution on BBC Radio 3 Synchronised Opera Surtitles
The challenges of subtitling music; a contribution on the RED BEE MEDIA blog

Music, mediation and cultural transfers
Born, Georgina (2000) Western Music and its Others: Differences, Representation and Appropriation in Music. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Dayan (Peter) (2011)
Art as Music, Music as Poetry, from Whistler to Stravinsky and Beyond. London: Ashgate.
Eisentraut, Jochen (2012)
The Accessibility of Music. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Vitale, Marina and Serena Guarracino (eds) (2009) “Voicings: Music Across borders” and “Music and the Performance of identity”, two special issues of
Anglistica: Issues 13, 1 and 13, 2.

Music, translation and literature

Brown, Calvin S. (1970) "The Relations between Music and Literature as a Field of Study", in Comparative Literature, vol 22, 2: 97-107.
Burgess, Anthony (1985) Oberon Old and New. Burgess's new opera together with Planché's original text. London: Hutchinson & Co.
da Souza Correa, Delia (ed.) (2006)
Phrase and Subject. Studies in Literature and Music. Oxford: Legenda.
Duchen, Jessica (2006) "Music in Literature" in
The Independent, 17 July, (last accessed 13 July 2013)
Said, Edward (2007) On Late Style: Music, Literature Against the Grain> London: Bloomsbury Publishing
Senior, Nancy (2001) "Whose song, whose land? Translation and appropriation in Nancy Huston’s P
lainsong/Cantique des plaines", in Meta 46(4): 675-686.
Weisstein, Ulrich (1961) ‘The libretto as literature’, in
Books Abroad 35: 16-22.
Wiskus, Jessica (2013)
The Rhythm of Thought: Art, Literature, and Music after Merleau-Ponty. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

The following bibliography on James Joyce and music has been compiled by Krzysztof Bartnicki:

Bartnicki, Krzysztof (2012) Da Capo al Finne. Warsaw: Sowa.
Bauerle, Ruth (ed.) (1993)
Picking Up Airs. Hearing the Music in Joyce's Text. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Bowen, Zack (1995)
Bloom's Old Sweet Song. Essays on Joyce and Music. Gainsville: University of Florida Press.
Bowen, Zack (1974)
Musical Allusions in the Works of James Joyce. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Brown, Susan (2007) "The Mystery of the Fuga per Canonem Solved", in
Genetic Joyce Studies, issue 7, Spring, at (Last accessed 10 July 2013).
Hodgart,Matthew J.C. & Ruth Bauerle (1996)
Joyce's Grand Operoar. Opera in Finnegans Wake. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Hodgart, Matthew J.C. & Mabel Worthington (1959)
Song in the Works of James Joyce. Philadelphia: Temple University Publications.
Knowles, Sebastian D. G. (ed.) (1999)
Bronze by Gold. The Music of Joyce. New York: Garland Publishing.
Sandulescu, C. George (2013)
Musical Allusions in Finnegans Wake. Bucharest: Contemporary Literature Press, at
Weaver, Jack (1998)
Joyce's Music and Noise: Theme and Variation in His Writing. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.
White, Harry (2008)
Music and the Irish Literary Imagination. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Witen, Michelle (2010)
The Mystery of the Fuga per Canonem Reopened?

Relevant websites and online resources for literature and music (last accessed on 10 July 2013)
Bibliographie des Musikschrifttum online / Bibliographie of Music Literature online, (last accessed 13 July 2013)

Music and language
Downes, William (1994) "Pragmatics of music and emotion", in Language Forum 2: 1-27.
Leeuwen, Theo van (1999)
Speech, Music, Sound. London: Palgrave Macmillan
Barthes, Roland (1977)
Image-Music-Text. London: Fontana.
Barthes, Roland (1982)
Le Grain de la voix. Entretiens 1962-1980. Paris: Editions du Seuil

Opera, musical and classical music
Apter, Ronnie (1982) "Molière's Le Médecin Malgré Lui: from text to libretto and libretto to performance", in Papers on French Seventeenth Century Literature, 9: 163-171.
Apter, Ronnie (1982) "Romanticism and revolution in Mozart's The Abduction from the Seraglio", in
The Opera Journal 15(3):15-24.
Apter, Ronnie (1985) "A peculiar problem: some technical problems of translating opera for performance in English", in
Meta 30(4): 309-319.
Apter, Ronnie (1989) "The impossible takes a little longer: translating opera into English’", in
Translation Review 30/31: 27-37.
Apter, Ronnie (1998) "Verdi and Romani's
Un Giorno di Regno: better than reputed", in Ars Lyrica 9: 81-89.
Apter, Ronnie and Mark Herman (1995) "The worst translations: almost any opera in English", in
Translation Review 48/49: 26-32.
Apter, Ronnie and Mark Herman (1999) "On translating
Il Trovatore". Gotham Translator 14(8): 3-7.
Apter, Ronnie and Mark Herman (2002) "Character delineation in opera translations: examples from Wagner's Ring", in T
he ATA Chronicle 31.5 (May 2002): 36-40.
Bosseaux, Charlotte (2011) “Song Translation”, in
Handbook in Translation Studies (eds). Kirsten Malmkjær and Kevin Windle. Oxford University Press: 183-197.
Bredin, Henrietta (2005) "Lost in Translation”, in
The Spectator, 4 June.
Burton, Jonathan (2008) "The Joy of Opera”, in Jorge Díaz Cintas and Gunilla Anderman (eds)
In So Many Words. Basingstoke: Palgrave-MacMillan.
Desblache, Lucile (2000) “Negro Spirituals en version française: appropriation ou acculturation?”, in
Quaderns. Revista de traducció, n°5, 111-121.
Desblache, Lucile (2004) "Low Fidelity: Opera in translation”, in
Translating Today October 2004, 28-31
Desblache, Lucile(2007) "Music to my Ears but Words to my Eyes? Text, opera and their audience”, in
Linguistica Antwerpiensa New Series 2 n˚ 6, December 2007, 155-170.
Desblache, Lucile (2008) “The Turn of the Text? Opera Libretto and Translation: Appropriation, Adaptation and Transcoding in Benjamin Britten’s
The Turn of the Screw and Owen Wingrave”, in Cecilia López and Jesús Tronch (eds) Traducció Creativa in Quaderns de Filologia Estudis Literaris XIII, 105-124.
Desblache, Lucile (2008) "Challenges and Rewards of Libretto Adaptation", in Jorge Díaz Cintas and Gunilla Anderman (eds)
Audiovisual Translation: Language Transfer on Screen. Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan, 71-82.
De Wolfe, Linda (2001) "Surtitling Operas. With Examples of Translations from German into French and Dutch”, in Yves Gambier and H. Gottlieb (eds) (2001)
(Multi)Media Translation, Concepts, Practices and Research, Translation Library, vol. 34. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 179-188.
Di Giovanni, Elena (2008) “The American Film Musical in Italy: Translation and Non-translation”, in
Susam-Sarajeva, Şebnem (ed.) (2008), 295-318.
Eisentraut, Jochen (2012)
The Accessibility of Music. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gorlée, Dinda, L. (ed.) (2005)
Song and Significance.Virtues and Vices of Vocal Translation. Approaches to Translation Studies. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Herman, Mark and Ronnie Apter (1991/2008) "Opera translation", in Mildred L. Larson (ed.)
Translation: Theory and Practice, Tension and Interdependence. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 100–119.
Herman, Mark and Ronnie Apter (1992) "Words and music: A theatrical partnership", in
The Opera Journal 25(4): 3-24.
Herman, Mark and Ronnie Apter (2000) "Opera translation: turning opera back into drama", in
Translation Review 59: 29-35.
Herman, Mark and Ronnie Apter (2010). "Retranslating the Bartered Bride", in
Translation Review 79(1): 17-29.
Jacobs, Arthur (1961) "On translating opera", in
The Musical Times 102(1415): 23-25.
Julia-Minors Helen (2013)
Music, Text and Translation. London: Bloomsbury.
Long, Michael (2008)
Beautiful Monsters: imagining the classic in musical media. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Low, Peter (2002) "Surtitles for Opera: A Specialised Translating Task”, in
Babel 48 (2), 97-110.
Low, Peter (2008) "Translating Songs that Rhyme”, in
Perspectives n° 16, 1-20.
Mossop, Brian (2013). “Singing in unknown languages: a small exercise in applied translation theory”, in Special issue of
JoSTrans, The Journal of Specialised Translation n° 20 (July 2013) on “Translating Multimodalities”.
Parker, Roger (eds) (1988).
Reading Opera. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Puigdomènech, Laura, Anna Matamala and Pilar Orero “The making of a protocol for opera audio description”, in Pegenaute, L.; Decesaris, J.; Tricás, M. and Bernal, E. (eds). Actas del III Congreso Internacional de la Asociación Ibérica de Estudios de Traducción e Interpretación. La traducción del futuro: mediación lingüístca y cultural en el siglo XXI. Barcelona 22-24 de marzo de 2007. Barcelona: PPU. Vol. nº 1, 381-392, at (Last accessed 10 July 2013).
Robinson, Paul (1988) "A Deconstructive Postscript: reading libretti and misreading opera" in Arthur Groos and Roger Parker (eds)
Reading Opera. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 328-346.
Serres, Michel (2011)
Musique. Paris: Le Pommier.
Smith, Patrick J., (1970)
The Tenth Muse: A Historical Study of the Opera Libretto. New York: A. A. Knopf.
Snell-Hornby (2007) “Theatre and Opera Translation”, in Piotr Kuhiwczak and Karin Littau (eds)
A Companion to Translation Studies. Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 106-119.
Sarajeva, Şebnem (ed.) (2008) Translation and Music, Special issue of The Translator, n°2. Manchester: St Jerome.
Tortoriello, Adriana (2013) "It ain't over till the fat lady sings. Subtitling operas and operettas for the DVD market", in Silvia Bruti and Elisa Perego (eds) Audiovisual Translation Today: Forms, Trends, Applications, special issue of
Linguistics Applied, vol. 7.
Virkkunen, Riitta (2004) "The Source Text of Opera Surtitles”, in
Méta 49(1), 89-97.

Popular, ethnic and world music

Section compiled in collaboration with Louisa Desilla

Apter, Ronnie (1999)
A Bilingual Edition of the Love Songs of Bernart De Ventadorn in Occitan and English: Sugar and Salt (Studies in Mediaeval Literature). New York and Ontario: The Edwin Mellen Press.
Ariza, Mercedes (2009) "Aspectos interculturales y lingüísticos en la traducción multimedia de un poema musical: del dialecto romañolo al lunfardo bonaerense", in
InTRAlinea Special Issue: The Translation of Dialects in Multimedia. Online. (Last accessed 10 July 2013).
Al-Azzam, Bakri and Aladdin Al-Kharabsheh (2011) "Jordanian folkloric songs in translation: Mousa’s song They Have Passed Without a Company as a case-study", in
Meta 56(3): 557-578.
Fernandez, Celestiono (1989) "Humor and satire in Mexican immigration corridos", in
Meta 34(1): 91-101.
de Grandmont, Suzanne (1978) ‘Problèmes de traduction dans le domaine de la poésie chantée’.
Meta 23(1): 97:108.
Hewitt, Elaine (2000) ‘A study of pop song translations’. Perspectives: Studies in Translatology 8(3): 187-195.
Kaindl, Klaus (2005) "The Plurisemiotics of Pop Song Translation: Words, Music, Voice and Image”, in Dinda Gorlée (2005)
Song and Significance.Virtues and Vices of Vocal Translation. Approaches to Translation Studies. Amsterdam: Rodopi.. 235-264.
Laliberté, Michelle (2012)
Paris, Berlin, New York en chansons traduites. Montreal: Presses Universitaires du Nouveau Monde.
Low, Peter (2010) "Singable translations of songs" in
Perspectives: Studies in Translatology 11(2): 87-103.
Marc, Isabelle (ed.) (2013) Special issue of the
Journal of European Culture, vol.4, 1 on European Popular Music.
Pezza Cintrão, Heloísa (2008) "Translating Under the Sign of Invention: Gilberto Gil's song lyric translation", in
Meta 54(4): 813-832.
Susam-Sarajeva, Sebnem (2006) "Rembetika songs and their ‘return’ to Anatolia", in
The Translator: 12 (2) Special Issue. Translation, Travel, Migration: 253-278.
Taviano, Stefania (2012) "Rezoulutionist hip hop: translating global voices and local identities", in
InTRAlinea Vol. 8. Online. accessed 10 July 2013).
Tortoriello Adriana (2006) "Funny and Educational across Cultures: Subtitling Winnie The Pooh into Italian”, in
JoSTrans, The Journal of Specialised Translation, n° 6, July 2006, 53-67.

Soundscapes and biomusic

Krause, Bernie (2002) Wild Soundscapes: Discovering the Voice of the Natural World. Berkeley: Wilderness Press.
Krause, Bernie (2012)
The Great Animal Orchestra: Finding the Origins of Music in the World's Wild Places. New York: Little Brown.
Rothenberg, David and Marta Ulvaeus (eds) (2001/2009)
The Book of Music and Nature. Middletown: Weysleyan University Press.
Toop, David (1995/2001)
Ocean of Sound. Aether talk, Ambient Sound and Imaginary Worlds. London: Serpent's Tail.